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Ammonium Chloride


Other Names:

Salmiac







General Information:


Structure:



CAS Number: 12125-02-9

Molecular Weight: 53.49 g/mol

Appearance: White crystalline solid

Chemical Formula: NH4Cl

Melting Point: 338 C (sublimes)

Acidity (Pka): 9.24


Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) is a solid that is often used as a source of ammonia (NH3) for reactions such as amide couplings. NH4Cl solutions are mildly acidic. Solutions of saturated aqueous ammonium chloride (sat aq NH4Cl) are very common in organic chemistry labs. Sat aq NH4Cl is typically used to quench reaction mixtures.




Common Uses:


Reagent in amide coupling reactions (serves as a source of NH3)





Reagent in nitro reductions using iron





Reagent in nitro reductions using zinc





Saturated aqueous ammonium chloride is used to quench some basic reactions



Procedure excerpt:
…and the reaction mixture was stirred for 3 h. The mixture was quenched with sat aq NH4Cl (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc




Safety:


Mixing ammonia containing compounds (ex. NH3, NH4OH, or NH4Cl) and bleach (NaOCl) is very dangerous because it produces toxic by-pdts. People have died from mixing cleaning supplies that contain ammonia and bleach. Household cleaning products that contain ammonia are typically aqueous solutions (NH4OH).




References:


1) WO2014149164, page 227

2) WO2015129926, page 74

3) WO2014149164, page 211

4) WO2015129926, page 75

5) Wikipedia: Ammonium chloride (link)

6) www.sigmaaldrich.com: Ammonium chloride (link)

7) www.alfa.com: A15000 Ammonium chloride, 98% (link)

8) The Chlorine Institute, Sodium Hypochlorite Incompatibility Chart (link)