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Hydrochloric Acid

Other Names:

Muriatic acid

General Information:


CAS Number: 7647-01-0

Molecular Weight: 36.46 g/mol

Appearance: Colorless liquid (37% w/w aq.)

Density: 1.2 g/mL (37% w/w aq)

Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a strong mineral acid with a wide variety of uses in organic chemistry. HCl can be purchased in various different concentrations but typically it is bought in concentrated form (37-38% wt/wt, 12M). Concentrated HCl can then be used to make lower concentration stock solutions (ex. 1M, 2M, 6M).

Common Uses:

Reagent for Boc deprotections

Reagent for THP deprotections

Reagent for SEM deprotections

Reagent for TBS deprotections

Reagent for CBz deprotections

Reagent for acetyl deprotections

Reagent for the conversion of carboxylic acids to esters (Fisher esterification)

Reagent for the conversion of esters to carboxylic acids

Reagent for the conversion of nitriles to carboxylic acids

Reagent for the conversion of nitriles to esters (Pinner reaction)


Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a strong acid and has the ability to cause severe damage to skin (skin contact), respiratory tract (inhalation), digestive tract (ingestion), or eyes (eye contact). Reactions of HCl with bases can be very exothermic. When making dilutions of concentrated acids always add acid to water, not water to acid.


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4) WO2016011930, page 107

5) WO2010016005, page 98

6) WO2014201173, page 72

7) WO2014149164, page 299

8) WO2015089337, page 206

9) WO2007089768, page 230

10) WO2014149164, page 234

11) Wikipedia: Hydrochloric acid (link)

12) Hydrochloric acid (link)

13) Reich, H. J.; Rigby, J. H.; Handbook of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Acidic and Basic Reagents